Central and Eastern Europe at the beginning of the ’90s. The Romanian case
Author: Marcela Salagean & Doru Todorescu
The end of the ninth decade of the 20th century brought a change of actors and the change of the balance of power in Central and Eastern Europe. In this complicated context, in which internal crises could not be controlled any longer through reform attempts made by the representatives of the communist regime, the decisive impulse came from East Germany. Soon afterwards, the events followed the “domino principle” and the totalitarian regimes in Central and Eastern Europe collapsed within the interval of June-December 1989. A political system was replaced by another that brought with it profound changes in all sectors of political, economic, social and cultural life. And postcommunism transition was supposed to be a process of liberation towards a set of free chosen alternative futures. Regarding Romania’s, the country’s evolution was dramatically influenced by the ideas of democracy and modernity of its leader and by the systematic attempts of the representatives of the old regime to keep their dominant positions. And, for this reason, the transition was more difficult in Romania than in other former communist states of Central Europe. Even though Romania underwent a difficult period in the early years after the fall of the communism, it is certain that the country has embarked on a new road, aiming the modernization and europenization,
The European fiscal compact: more sticks than carrots? Political claims in the Romanian media
Author: Adina Elena Marincea
The paper proposes an inquiry into the political communication triggered by the signing of the European Fiscal Compact, as it is reflected in two Romanian newspapers: Adevărul and Evenimentul Zilei. It aims at identifying the positions adopted by Member States regarding the treaty and the discursive alliances or oppositions embedded in different actors’ political claims. At the level of the media analyzed, the objective of the study is to compare the reporting style of the two newspapers and identify potential differences in the evaluations of the topic, the selection of frames and the visibility of different actors, both national and European. The research draws on political claims analysis in order to identify the communicative interactions regarding the Fiscal Compact and resorts to frames analysis for a more comprehensive insight into the reasons and stakes of the involved actors. Inductive and deductive frames analyses were carried out in an effort to explain the positions adopted by political actors in regard to the treaty. The results show that journalists of Adevărul and Evenimentul Zilei select different claims and frames, which results in opposing attitudes of the two media sources regarding the fiscal treaty. Though the general attitude of the EU countries has a negative tendency, reflected in their political claims, 25 out of the 27 member states have agreed to ratify the treaty. The frames analysis explains this contradictory finding, suggesting that the treaty was perceived as being more about sticks than carrots. In contrast with the general tendency, the results point out that Romanian actors manifest more support for the treaty in comparison to the political debate outside the borders.
The rehabilitation process of “Simion Bărnuțiu” Park and the Casino building from Cluj- Napoca -Aspects of urban governance-
Author: Alexandra Almășan, Raluca Luțai, Cristina Ion
This paper aims to research the rehabilitation process of “Simion Bărnuţiu” central park and the Casino building in Cluj-Napoca in terms of aspects of urban governance. Throughout the paper we will focus on defining and understanding the concept of urban governance by discovering the history of the area through qualitative and quantitative tools, which will allow us to draw some conclusions about the way in which the rehabilitation process worked and other things concerning the citizens’ satisfaction regarding this issue. The conclusions that we reached at the end of the paper are the result of content analysis and the application of an online questionnaire.
Participatory budgeting in Cluj-Napoca
Author: Olga Anca Bar & Diana Isvoranu
The following paper aims at discussing the way in which the pilot-project of participatory budgeting is being implemented at the level of Cluj-Napoca. Following the examples of the states which have already adopted this way of involving its citizens in the decision making process and management of the local budget, the City Hall and City Council, in partnership with different NGOs from Cluj-Napoca, have initiated this project at the beginning of 2013 in Mănăştur, the city’s largest district. In order to better understand the operating parameters of this project we decided not only to analyze the defining elements of the local budget in general and those of participatory budgeting in particular, but also to engage in a more practical approach, based on direct participation and identification of attitudes belonging to those involved (citizens and local authorities).
Adrienne Hérritier & Martin Rhodes(eds.), New Modes of Governance in Europe. Governing in the Shadow of Hierarchy, London, Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011
Author: Cristina Dogot
The evolution of the European integration process became necessary,
at the internal level of the Union, in order to improve relations between its
different political, economical or social actors, as well as to reduce the distance
between the levels of classical government and the economic and social agents.
Hence, a volume that focuses on the new models of European governance,
following both the theoretical and analytical perspectives, can only play a
positive role in understanding the new European realities. The main merit of
the present volume becomes thus, the deconstruction of a concept, starting
from its theories and practices.
Les modeles de gouvernance europeenne peuvent etre appliques en Amerique Latine?
Author: Tatiana Enache
L’Amérique Latine se trouve dans un processus accéléré de démocratisation.
La Banque Mondiale (BM), le Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement
(PNUD) et d’autres organismes internationaux se proposent appuyer ce processus. Dans
ce sens, grâce aux expériences de l’UE sur la gouvernabilité, gouvernance et la bonne
gouvernance, elles se proposent fixer des modèles universellement valables pour que les pays en
voie de développement puissent obtenir ces objectifs. Mais, les caractéristiques spécifiques du
continent latino-américain, avec des racines importantes depuis la Colonie, ont des difficultés
pour adopter les modèles européennes de gouvernance. Dans ce contexte, se pose la question
de détecter quelles sont les difficultés pour les adopter en Amérique Latine. L’article analyse
les processus de démocratisation de la région pendant les derniers vingt ans et les efforts de la
Banque Mondiale pour répéter les schémas déjà appliquées dans les pays développés. Sortent
en relief les difficultés rencontrées à cause des caractéristiques mentionnées. Les pas parcourus
par les pays latino-américains pour trouver des voies propres afin de développer la démocratie,
montrent que ces mécanismes ne peuvent pas être appliqués mécaniquement.
Appartenances partagées en Europe centrale et orientale
Author:Joëlle le MORZELLEC
Evoquer l’Europe centrale et orientale en termes d’appartenances, et voire d’identités partagées, au regard de l’Union européenne et de la Francophonie, n’est pas sans risques. C’est presqu’une mission impossible en un temps très bref. Le sujet pourrait même constituer bien davantage que celui d’une unique thèse, tellement il est vaste.
C’est la raison pour laquelle cette contribution, qui ne sera qu’un survol, s’efforcera de mettre l’accent, au-delà des fractures, considérables dans cet espace, sur ce qui peut constituer la volonté d’une compréhension commune, avant même un désir de vivre ensemble, car tous n’ont pas atteint la même étape sur un tel chemin.
Le propos ne sera pas exactement celui du juriste, ni celui de l’historien, ni du géographe, ni du politique, mais plutôt la perception de celui qui a porté ses pas, voire vécu dans cet espace immense qui fit l’objet de tant de conquêtes, de rêves inachevés, mais aussi de tragédies inscrites dans la mémoire de l’Histoire.
En effet, il convient tout d’abord de s’entendre sur la définition de cet espace : quels seront les états qui feront partie de l’étude ? Ensuite, en ayant présent à l’esprit leur histoire individuelle, ancienne, contemporaine ou récente, si prégnante et diverse, s’imposera l’évocation des facteurs qui les rapprochent les uns des autres, plutôt que ce qui les sépare. Mais nous ne serions pas complets si nous raisonnions seulement en termes d’« états », et de données politiques, sans évoquer l’existence des peuples, certains encore divisés, ou connaissant encore la souffrance, donc des « minorités nationales », et en omettant de souligner les appartenances religieuses. D’où à nouveau cette remarque sur l’étendue et la complexité d’un tel sujet. Définissons d’abord le cadre spatial de cette étude ; puis procédons à la recherche de traits communs qui dénoteraient la manifestation d’une volonté d’appartenance partagée, plus que véritablement l’existence d’une identité. L’identité s’accorde avec la nation, mais pas avec une organisation internationale, car la nation suppose un attachement, viscéral, né au cours des siècles qui l’ont forgée, un passé commun de gloires et de souffrances.
Albania between two myths: European Union and the United States of AmericaFrom 1989 to 2011
Author: Ervilda Smajlaj
The fact that the Balkans represent an extremely complex reality is widely known. It is impossible to forget the famous phrase of Winston Churchill, according to which ‘‘the Balkans produce more history than they are able to consume’’. This statement retains all its relevance even today. Within this scenario, Albania plays a strategic role. The sudden collapse of the Communist regime brought the country into a state of semi-anarchy. The Albanian transition from dictatorship to democracy has gone through several phases, a number of which dramatic in some ways. The events, both positive and negative, which took place in the region, have had a relevant impact on surrounding areas and have significantly affected the positions of the major global players. The present study focuses especially on the influence that two important western powers, the European Union and the United States of America, with two different models of governance, have in Albania and highlights their important support in the process of democratization after the fall of Communism in 1992. This essay analyzes the importance of these two international actors in the Albanian political and economical reforms, as well as the role of Albania in their politics and the factors that determine these relations.
Robert Kissack, Pursuing effective multilateralism The European Union, International Organisations and the Politics of Decision-Making, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010
Author: Anna Bătrîn
Robert Kissack’s book, Pursuing effective multilateralism. The European
Union, International Organizations and the politics of decision-making is an
analysis of European Union’s foreign policy. The book has appeared as a result
of some previously developed studies, starting from 2003, after the US invasion
in Irak. It aims at underlining the changes that appeared in the European
Union’s foreign policy after this moment. Kissack offers a comparative analysis
of the European Union’s position in various multilateral organizations.
The role of the regions in EU governance By Carlo Panara, Alexander De Becker(Eds.), Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011
Author: Gabriela Carmen Pascariu
The evolution of the European integration process throughout 50 years
of institutional development has led to the creation of a complex governance
system, often weakly balanced, associating intergovernmental instruments and
methods with a supranational organization. Such an institutional structural
dualism is the result of the diversity of the member states strategic options
concerning the functioning and political perspectives of the European Union,
and of the functional logic of the governance system which was forced to
provide an answer to the association of several types of interests: those of
the Union’s, of the states’ (as basic entities of the Union), of the regional
entities’(very powerful and, in certain cases, with increased autonomy), of the
citizens’ (especially, after including in the treaties the European citizenship and
the direct relationship between citizen and Union).